Organ transplantation

What is organ transplantation

organ transplantation

it is the process of transferring an organ from one body to another which called “autografts”.
Or replace damaged tissues in one body ,Transferring part of healthy tissue to the damaged part this process called “allografts”.
And organ transplantation includes ( heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, thymus).
And Tissue transplant includes ( bones, tendons ”both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts” cornea, skin, heart valves)

Before sergury you will meet with several members of the multi-disciplinary team, which includes:

  • clinic nurse specialist
  • transplant surgeons
  • cardiology
  • gastroenterology
  • anesthesiology
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liver is the largest internal organ and performs several critical functions, including:

 

  • Processing nutrients, medications and hormones.
  • Producing bile, which helps the body absorb fats, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Making proteins that help the blood clot.
  • Removing bacteria and toxins from the blood.
  • Preventing infection and regulating immune responses.

liver is a complicated organ that produces many vital substances in the blood and that removes many wastes and poisons from the circulation. It is, in effect, a chemical factory.

And Liver transplantation  is the replacement of a diseased liver with some or all of a healthy liver from another person . The most commonly used technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic location as the original liver.

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What is Bone marrow?

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones, bone marrow is the primary site of new blood cell production , Human marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day.

what is bone marrow transplant?

A bone marrow transplant is a medical treatment that replaces your bone marrow with healthy cells. The replacement cells can either come from your own body” Autologous transplant” or from a donor” Allogenic transplant ” ,Bone marrow transplants can be conducted to treat severe diseases of the bone marrow, including certain forms of cancer such as leukemia, and can also potentially be used to treat illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Steps for bone marrow transplantation:

Autologous transplant:

  • Step 1: Collecting your stem cells: First you will get injections of a medication to increase your stem cells, Then your health care team collects the stem cells through a vein in your arm or your chest. The cells will be stored until they are needed.
  • Step 2: Pre-transplant treatment ,You will get a high dose of chemotherapy ”Occasionally patients also have radiation therapy”.
  • Step 3: Getting your stem cells back. This step is your transplant day. It takes about 30 minutes for each dose of stem cells. This is called an “infusion”. Your health care team puts the stem cells back into your bloodstream through the catheter.
  • Step 4: Recovery…Your doctor will closely monitor your cells’ recovery and growth and you will take antibiotics to reduce infection.
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Allogenic transplant:

  • Step 1: Donor identification: A matched donor must be found before the transplant process can begin.
  • Step 2: Collecting stem cells from your donor, Your health care team will collect cells from either your donor’s blood or bone marrow.
  • Step 3: Pre-transplant treatment, You will get chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, to prepare your body to receive the donor’s cells.
  • Step 4: Getting the donor cells. This step is your transplant day, Your health care team puts, or infuses, the donor’s stem cells into your bloodstream through the catheter. Getting the donor cells usually takes less than an hour.
  • Step 5: Recovery. During your initial recovery, you will get antibiotics to reduce your risk of infection and other drugs,  Your health care team will also treat any side effects from the transplant.
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The kidneys are one of the most important organs in the body as they perform several important functions.

As removes many wastes and poisons from the circulation and controls the volume of fluids in the body

A kidney transplant is where the kidney of a healthy person is placed in the body of another person

What are the benefits of having a transplant?

Having a transplant means that you do not have to dialysis.

  • You might find you have more energy, making you feel better able to cope with everyday life, including work or studies.
  • Your sex life and fertility will probably improve
  • If you have Type one diabetes and have a kidney and pancreas transplant you should no longer need to take insulin or tablets to control your blood sugar.
  • You will have a less restrictive diet than if you are on dialysis
  • You will be able to restart any sport or exercise after the transplant
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